Animal लेबलों वाले संदेश दिखाए जा रहे हैं. सभी संदेश दिखाएं
Animal लेबलों वाले संदेश दिखाए जा रहे हैं. सभी संदेश दिखाएं

14 जनवरी 2019

8:10 am

Most five dangerous animals of India

Hello ! Friends today we will know the main five animals of India

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The Bengal tiger is a Panthera tigris tigris population in the Indian subcontinent. It is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2008, and was estimated at comprising fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011. It is threatened by poaching, loss and fragmentation of habitat. None of the Tiger Conservation Landscapes within its range is considered large enough to support an effective population of more than 250 adult individuals.India's tiger population was estimated at 1,706–1,909 individuals in 2010. By 2014, the population had reputedly increased to an estimated 2,226 individuals. Around 440 tigers are estimated in Bangladesh, 163–253 tigers in Nepal and 103 tigers in Bhutan.
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The tiger is estimated to be present in the Indian subcontinent since the Late Pleistocene, for about 12,000 to 16,500 years.

The Bengal tiger ranks among the biggest wild cats alive today. It is considered to belong to the world's charismatic megafauna. It is the national animal of both India and Bangladesh. It is also known as the Royal Bengal tiger.

The Bengal tiger's coat is yellow to light orange, with stripes ranging from dark brown to black; the belly and the interior parts of the limbs are white, and the tail is orange with black rings. The white tiger is a recessive mutant of the tiger, which is reported in the wild from time to time in Assam, Bengal, Bihar, and especially from the former State of Rewa. However, it is not to be mistaken as an occurrence of albinism. In fact, there is only one fully authenticated case of a true albino tiger, and none of black tigers, with the possible exception of one dead specimen examined in Chittagong in 1846.

Males have an average total length of 270 to 310 cm (110 to 120 in) including the tail, while females measure 240 to 265 cm (94 to 104 in) on average. The tail is typically 85 to 110 cm (33 to 43 in) long, and on average, tigers are 90 to 110 cm (35 to 43 in) in height at the shoulders. The weight of males ranges from 180 to 258 kg (397 to 569 lb), while that of the females ranges from 100 to 160 kg (220 to 350 lb).The smallest recorded weights for Bengal tigers are from the Bangladesh Sundarbans, where adult females are 75 to 80 kg (165 to 176 lb).

The tiger has exceptionally stout teeth. Its canines are 7.5 to 10 cm (3.0 to 3.9 in) long and thus the longest among all cats. The greatest length of its skull is 332 to 376 mm (13.1 to 14.8 in).

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         Bengal tigers weigh up to 325 kg (717 lb), and reach a head and body length of 320 cm (130 in). Several scientists indicated that adult male Bengal tigers from the Terai in Nepal and Bhutan, and Assam, Uttarakhand and West Bengal in north India consistently attain more than 227 kg (500 lb) of body weight. Seven adult males captured in Chitwan National Park in the early 1970s had an average weight of 235 kg (518 lb) ranging from 200 to 261 kg (441 to 575 lb), and that of the females was 140 kg (310 lb) ranging from 116 to 164 kg (256 to 362 lb). Thus, the Bengal tiger rivals the Amur tiger in average weight. In addition, the record for the greatest length of a tiger skull was an "over the bone" length of 16.25 in (413 mm); this tiger was shot in the vicinity of Nagina in northern India.

Indian rhinoceros
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         The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), also called the greater one-horned rhinoceros and great Indian rhinoceros, is a rhinoceros native to the Indian subcontinent. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, as populations are fragmented and restricted to less than 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi). Moreover, the extent and quality of the rhino's most important habitat, alluvial grassland and riverine forest, is considered to be in decline due to human and livestock encroachment. As of 2008, a total of 2,575 mature individuals were estimated to live in the wild.
The Indian rhinoceros is one of the smaller rhinoceros species, thought to be most closely related to the Javan rhinoceros. The Indian rhinoceros has one horn which it uses for defence, intimidation, digging up roots and breaking branches during feeding. The horn of the Indian rhinoceros is made from a substance called keratin and is therefore very strong. The horn of the Indian rhinoceros is used in ancient medicine and many Indian rhinos have been illegally poached for them.

      The Indian rhinoceros has relatively poor eyesight, relying more on hearing and smell to detect what is going on around them. The ears of the Indian rhinoceros possess a relatively wide rotational range to detect sounds and an excellent sense of smell to readily alert them to the presence of predators.

        The Indian rhinoceros is a herbivorous animal meaning that it sustains itself on a purely plant based diet. Indian rhinos browse the densely vegetated sub-tropical forest for leaves, flowers, buds, fruits, berries and roots which they dig up from the ground using their horns.
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             Due to its large size, the Indian rhino's only real predator in the wild are large wild cats such as tigers that will prey on the Indian rhino calves and weak individuals. Humans are the biggest threat to the Indian rhinoceros as they have been hunted to the brink of extinction for their horns.

                The Indian rhinoceros is a solitary animal and only comes together with other Indian rhinos to mate. The female Indian rhinoceros gives birth to a single calf after a gestation period that is over a year long. The Indian rhinoceros calf remains with its mother until it is at least 2 years old and big enough to become independent.

Asiatic lion
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    The Asiatic lion is a Panthera leo leo population in India.ts range is restricted to the Gir National Park and environs in the Indian state of Gujarat. On the IUCN Red List it is listed under its former scientific name Panthera leo persica as Endangered because of its small size and area of occupancy.

      Asiatic Lions are mainly dependent on Chital, Nilgai, Sambhar Buffaloes and Goats for food. Sometimes they hunt small animals and if need arises they kill the livestock or camel found in the neighboring areas of Gir National Park. They go hunting in groups, but a single lion kills the prey and while the rest just fight grabbing their share. Usually females are more active than males in hunting and males are aggressive while having their food. Generally males join in the hunting only while killing animals like wild buffalo and the like. There are times when the bachelors in the pride get a chance to hunt alone and swallow its bite individually. Sometimes they snatch the kills from hyena and wild dogs as well.
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           The females of Asiatic lions breed in the beginning days of winter i.e., in the month of October and November. Within around three and half months the little ones get mature in their mother's womb and the lioness may give birth to 3-4 cubs at a time. On an average, 30-36 months the lionesses become compatible to conceive and they breed every two years. The lion kids are born blind and open their eyes at the age of 2-3 weeks. The life expectancy of this species of lion ranges between 20 30 years.
       Considering the decline in their total population, the Asiatic Lion is declared as the most endangered large cat species in the world.

Indian leopard
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       The Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) is a leopard subspecies widely distributed on the Indian subcontinent. The species Panthera pardus is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because populations have declined following habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching for the illegal trade of skins and body parts, and persecution due to conflict situations.
        The Indian leopard is one of the big catsoccurring on the Indian subcontinent, apart from the Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, snow leopard and clouded leopard.

.         In 2014, a national census of leopards around tiger habitats was carried out in India except the northeast. 7,910 individuals were estimated in surveyed areas and a national total of 12,000-14,000 speculated
        Male Indian leopards grow to between 4 ft 2 in (127 cm) and 4 ft 8 in (142 cm) in body size with a 2 ft 6 in (76 cm) to 3 ft (91 cm) long tail and weigh between 110 and 170 lb (50 and 77 kg). Females are smaller, growing to between 3 ft 5 in (104 cm) and 3 ft 10 in (117 cm) in body size with a 2 ft 6 in (76 cm) to 2 ft 10.5 in (87.6 cm) long tail, and weigh between 64 and 75 lb (29 and 34 kg). Sexually dimorphic, males are larger and heavier than females.

            The largest individual appears to have been a male man-eater that was shot in the Dhadhol area of Bilaspur district, Himachal Pradesh, in 2016. It reportedly measured 8 ft 7 in (262 cm) from head to tail, 34 in (86 cm) at the shoulder, and weighed 71 kg (157 lb)

            The leopard is elusive, solitary, and largely nocturnal. It is known for its ability in climbing, and has been observed resting on tree branches during the day, dragging its kills up trees and hanging them there, and descending from trees headfirst.It is a powerful swimmer, although is not as disposed to swimming as the tiger. It is very agile, and can run at over 58 kilometres per hour (36 mph), leap over 6 m (20 ft) horizontally, and jump up to 3 m (9.8 ft) vertically. It produces a number of vocalizations, including grunts, roars, growls, meows, and purrs.
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      Depending on the region, the leopard mates all year round. The estrous cycle lasts about 46 days and the female usually is in heat for 6–7 days. Gestation lasts for 90 to 105 days. Cubs are usually born in a litter of 2–4 cubs.Mortality of cubs is estimated at 41–50% during the first year. Females give birth in a cave, crevice among boulders, hollow tree, or thicket to make a den. Cubs are born with closed eyes, which open four to nine days after birth.The fur of the young tends to be longer and thicker than that of adults. Their pelage is also more gray in colour with less defined spots. Around three months of age, the young begin to follow the mother on hunts. At one year of age, leopard young can probably fend for themselves, but remain with the mother for 18–24 months. The average typical life span of a leopard is between 12 and 17 years.

Indian elephant
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    The Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) is one of three recognized subspecies of the Asian elephant and native to mainland Asia.
       In general, Asian elephants are smaller than African elephants and have the highest body point on the head. The tip of their trunk has one finger-like process. Their back is convex or level.Indian elephants reach a shoulder height of between 2 and 3.5 m (6.6 and 11.5 ft), weigh between 2,000 and 5,000 kg (4,400 and 11,000 lb), and have 19 pairs of ribs. Their skin color is lighter than of maximus with smaller patches of depigmentation, but darker than of sumatranus. Females are usually smaller than males, and have short or no tusks.

      The largest Indian elephant was 3.43 m (11.3 ft) high at the shoulder. In 1985, two large elephant bulls were spotted for the first time in Bardia National Park, and named Raja Gaj and Kanchha. They roamed the park area together and occasionally visited female herds. Raja Gaj stood 3.43 m (11.3 ft) tall at the shoulder and had a massive body weight. His forehead and domes were more prominent than in other Asian bull elephants. His appearance has been compared to that of a Stegodon and mammoth due to his high bi-domed shaped head.

                   Indian elephants have smaller ears, but relatively broader skulls and larger trunks than African elephants. Toes are large and broad. Unlike their African cousins, their abdomen is proportionate with their body weight but the African elephant has a large abdomen as compared to the skulls.
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            Elephants are classified as megaherbivores and consume up to 150kg (330 lb) of plant matter per day.They are generalist feeders, and both grazers and browsers. In a study area of 1,130 km2 (440 sq mi) in southern India, elephants were recorded to feed on 112 different plant species, most commonly of the order Malvales, and the legume, palm, sedge and true grass families. They graze on the tall grasses, but the portion consumed varies with season. When the new flush appears in April, they remove the tender blades in small clumps. Later, when grasses are higher than 0.5 m (1.6 ft), they uproot entire clumps, dust them skilfully and consume the fresh leave tops, but discard the roots. When grasses are mature in autumn, they clean and consume the succulent basal portions with the roots, and discard the fibrous blades. From the bamboos, they eat seedlings, culms and lateral shoots. During the dry season from January to April, they mainly browse on both leaves and twigs preferring the fresh foliage, and consume thorn bearing shoots of acacia species without any obvious discomfort. They feed on the bark of white thorn and other flowering plants, and consume the fruits of wood apple, tamarind, kumbhi and date palm

03 जनवरी 2019

6:52 pm

यहा पर देखने मिलता है इंसान की तरह चलने वाला जानवर - ऑस्ट्रेलिया का खूबसूरत कंगारूद्वीप

ऑस्ट्रेलिया के दक्षिणी तट पर कंगारू द्वीप स्थित है, जहाँ संरक्षण के प्रयासों के कारण वन्यजीवों का विकास हुआ है

     अधिकांश समय, ऑस्ट्रेलियाई समुद्री शेर समुद्र तट पर आराम करते हुए पाए जाते हैं, ऑस्ट्रेलिया में कंगारू शहर, एडिलेड के दक्षिण-पश्चिम में कंगारू द्वीप पर है एडिलेड से 40 मिनट की उड़ान के बाद, ऑस्ट्रेलिया के तीसरे सबसे बड़े द्वीप, जो कि दक्षिण ऑस्ट्रेलियाई राज्य है। 4,350 वर्ग किमी द्वीप पर 5,000 से कम की आबादी के साथ - जो, तकनीकी रूप से, प्रति वर्ग किमी 1 व्यक्ति का मतलब है - इसमें चार पुलिसकर्मी, दो दंत चिकित्सक, छह डॉक्टर और तीन स्कूल हैं। अधिकांश आबादी किंग्सकोटे और पेनेशॉ में केंद्रित है, और जंगल के विशाल हिस्से को जंगल और वन्य जीवन के लिए छोड़ दिया गया है: द्वीप में 21 संरक्षण पार्क और एक बड़ा राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, फ्लिंडर्स चेस है। वन्यजीवों के लिए मानव आबादी और जंगल के लिए मानव आवास का अनुपात, यह कहीं अधिक संभावना बनाता है कि शहरी हब के बाहर - आप मानव के बजाय द्वीप के पशु निवासियों में आएंगे। अक्सर, आप अपने प्राचीन समुद्र तटों पर चलने वाले एकमात्र व्यक्ति हो सकते हैं।

       कंगारू द्वीप के छोटे से हवाई अड्डे से सीधे किंग्सकोटे में सील  जो एक समुद्र तट पर है। जो खतरे में आस्ट्रेलियाई समुद्री शेरों का वर्चस्व है। उनमें से अधिकांश रेत पर बेकार पड़े होते है। "वे भालू, कुत्ते और भेड़िये के रूप में कार्निवोर स्तनपायी समूह के एक ही कैनिफोर्मिया उप-क्रम के होते हैं। नर, जिनका वजन लगभग 350 किलोग्राम है, पिल्ले के पालन-पोषण में कोई भूमिका नहीं निभाते हैं।

       लगभग 83 प्रतिशत ऑस्ट्रेलियाई समुद्री शेर दक्षिण ऑस्ट्रेलिया और शेष पश्चिमी ऑस्ट्रेलिया में रहते हैं। 18 वीं और 19 वीं शताब्दी में, उनकी संख्या बड़े पैमाने पर उनके छर्रों और ब्लबर ऑयल के शिकार के कारण घट गई, जिसके परिणामस्वरूप बास स्ट्रेट में एक विलुप्त होने वाला चैनल, जो तस्मानिया को मुख्य भूमि के दक्षिण से अलग करता है।
आज, हालांकि, दक्षिण ऑस्ट्रेलिया में लगभग 12,000 समुद्री शेर हैं, जिनमें से 900 सील बे में पाए जाते हैं। सील बे कंजर्वेशन पार्क की टीम सक्रिय रूप से उनकी आबादी, पिल्ला मृत्यु दर और मम-एंड-प्यूपर इंटरैक्शन की निगरानी में शामिल है। यह, वे एम्बेडेड माइक्रोचिप्स की मदद से करते हैं जो उन्हें ट्रैक करने में मदद करते हैं। लगभग 200-अजीब पिल्ले प्रजनन चक्र के दौरान सील बे में पैदा होते हैं, जिसमें पिछले सीजन की गिनती 231 है।

      आज, इन समुद्री शेरों का सामना गिलनेट्स द्वारा किए जाने वाले खतरों से होता है, जिनका उपयोग मछली के शार्क शार्क, शार्क और हाथी की मछलियों को देखने के लिए किया जाता है। इस मुद्दे को हल करने के लिए, ऑस्ट्रेलियाई मत्स्य प्रबंधन प्राधिकरण मछुआरों को हुक और लाइन मछली पकड़ने के तरीकों को अपनाने के लिए प्रोत्साहित कर रहा है। उन्होंने गिलनेट क्लोजर के भीतर समुद्री शेरों की संख्या की सीमा को भी बंद कर दिया है, जो कि सील बे से 28 किमी दक्षिण में है। कैमरे चौबीसों घंटे निगरानी सुनिश्चित करते हैं, और एक बार सीमा पूरी हो जाने के बाद, क्षेत्र को अगले 18 महीनों के लिए मछली पकड़ने के लिए बंद कर दिया जाता है।

          इन गैर-प्रवासी स्तनधारियों का जीवन समुद्र के तट पर एक दोहरी ज़िंदगी का नेतृत्व करता है, और दूसरा समुद्र की गहराई में। समुद्री शेर नीचे-भक्षण करने वाले होते हैं जो तीन दिनों की अवधि के लिए समुद्र में रह सकते हैं, भोजन के लिए थोड़ा आराम करते हैं। उनका टारपीडो जैसा शरीर उन्हें इस समय के दौरान 900 से 1,300 गोता लगाने में सक्षम बनाता है, यही वजह है कि जेली केली- योग उनके साइनस को साफ करने में मदद करता है।

           कंगारू द्वीप में 700,000 भेड़ें हैं, मुख्य रूप से मेरिनो किस्म जो ऊन और मांस के लिए पाला जाता है। 19 वीं और 20 वीं सदी की शुरुआत में, इस द्वीप में यूकेलिप्टस तेल की 48 भट्टियां थीं। तेल को नीलगिरी की संकीर्ण पत्ती वाली माली किस्म (कंगारू द्वीप का मूल निवासी) और द्वीप पर हावी होने वाले गम के पेड़ों से निकाला जाता है। डिस्टिलरी उद्योग के घटते ही खेती में तेजी आई। आज, द्वीप में केवल एक डिस्टिलरी का उत्पादन तेल है जो व्यापक रूप से एक एंटीसेप्टिक के रूप में उपयोग किया जाता है।

             विशाल यक्का पौधा जो साल में सिर्फ 1 सेमी बढ़ते हैं, जिसका अर्थ है 100 वर्षों में 1 मीटर।“आग प्रतिरोधी हार्डी पौधों ने 19 वीं शताब्दी के अंत में याका गमिंग उद्योग को जन्म दिया। 1930 में, लोग प्लांट को राल इकट्ठा करने और विस्फोटक बनाने के लिए मार डालते थे, क्योंकि इससे विस्फोटकों के जलने के समय को नियंत्रित किया जा सकता था। ”आज, याक एक संरक्षित प्रजाति है और इसकी कटाई प्रतिबंधित है। हालांकि, इसकी राल का उपयोग रंजक बनाने और लकड़ी के वार्निश के रूप में किया जाता है। वाइनमेकर मृत यक्का की कटाई करके वाइन को रंगने के लिए राल का उपयोग करते हैं। यक्का से गोंद शराब में घुल जाता है और जलसेक पैदा करता है जो गार्नेट लाल होता है। द्वीप की जलवायु अंगूर की खेती के लिए आदर्श है। यह लगभग 29 दाख की बारियां, 14 लेबल और पाँच तहखाने के दरवाजों का घर है।

            यह द्वीप उन लोगों के लिए एक आश्रय है जो ग्रिड से दूर जीवन जीना पसंद करते हैं। "हर कोई यहां अपने जीवन का आनंद नहीं लेता है।" “यह एकांत और सुदूर है, और जंगल में रहने के दौरान बहुत मानवीय संपर्क नहीं है। कई लोग जो जीवित रहने के लिए द्वीप पर आते हैं, कुछ महीनों के समय में छोड़ देते हैं क्योंकि वे इस तरह के जीवन के अभ्यस्त नहीं होते हैं।

अगर आपको हमारे आर्टिकल पसंद आया हो तो हमारी आर्टिकल को शेयर करें